Articles

Tumors

  • Chemotherapy is the therapeutic use of chemical agents to destroy, or inhibit the growth and division of cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually used when tumors are widespread or when there is significant or immediate risk of spread from the primary location. It is often used following the surgical removal of tumors. In some cases, chemotherapy is started prior to surgery. Different protocols are used depending on the drug and the type of cancer being treated. The side effects of chemotherapy are related to the effects of chemotherapy on normal – as well as cancerous – cells. The principal goal with cancer care in pets is to provide cancer control without reducing quality of life. With pets, chemotherapy protocols are purposefully designed so the treatment does not become worse than the disease.

  • Chondrosarcomas arise from cartilage, which is a connective tissue primarily found where bones meet with joints, as well as at other locations in the body (such as the nasal cavity, ribs, etc.). Chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor in cats, but it can occur. The reason why a particular pet may develop this, or any tumor or cancer, is not straightforward. Clinical signs of chondrosarcoma may vary significantly, depending upon where the tumor arises. Although the mass may grow rapidly, less than 20% of feline chondrosarcoma cases metastasize to other parts of the body. Therefore, surgical removal is curative in many cases.

  • Chondrosarcomas arise from cartilage, which is a connective tissue primarily found where bones meet with joints, as well as at other locations in the body (such as the nasal cavity, ribs, etc.). Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor in dogs. Canine chondrosarcoma most commonly affects the flat bones of the body, such as the ribs, skull, nasal cavity and pelvis, although the limbs can also be affected. Aggressive surgical resection is typically recommended, although radiation therapy may also be used (depending on location). Metastasis may occur, but is relatively uncommon.

  • Esophageal tumors are extremely rare in dogs and cats. There are many kinds, including squamous cell carcinomas, leiomyosarcomas, fibrosarcomas, osteosarcomas, and undifferentiated sarcomas (all malignant); and leiomyomas and plasmacytomas (benign). Most tumors are malignant. These tumors occur mostly in the upper esophagus in cats and the lower esophagus in dogs. In dogs, most cases of esophageal sarcoma are associated with spirocercosis. Esophageal cancer causes progressive signs of regurgitation, difficulty swallowing, excessive salivation, weight loss, and lack of appetite. It is diagnosed with imaging, endoscopic or surgical biopsy, and histopathology. Surgery is a treatment option, with the possibility of radiation therapy for tumors of the upper esophagus. Avermectins may be used with benign spirocercosis. Palliative care may be possible with the placement of a feeding tube.

  • Intestinal tumors are uncommon in dogs and cats. There are many kinds, including leiomyosarcomas, lymphomas, adenocarcinomas, mast cell tumors, GISTs, plasmacytomas, carcinoids, and osteosarcomas (all malignant) and leiomyomas, adenomatous polyps, and adenomas (all benign). Most intestinal tumors are malignant. Intestinal tumors are more prevalent in older animals, males, and certain breeds. The signs of intestinal tumors vary according to the area of the intestinal tract that is affected, and can include vomiting, lack of appetite, lethargy and weight loss for the upper bowel and difficulty defecating, ribbon-like stools, and rectal prolapse with the lower bowel. Sometimes tumor ulceration causes anemia. Paraneoplastic syndromes are possible with the muscle tumors. Intestinal tumors may be diagnosed with imaging, endoscopy, or surgery, with a biopsy. Treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

  • A keratoma is a rare benign tumor of the inner layer of keratin-producing epidermal hoof wall cells that forms inside a horse's foot. As the tumor slowly grows, it expands and separates the hoof wall laminae, causing pain and lameness.

  • Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are cells that are involved in the immune system. Lymphoma is connected with feline leukemia, a viral infection. Feline lymphoma most commonly affects the intestines. Therefore, clinical signs of lymphoma are often similar to other intestinal diseases. Diagnosing lymphoma requires finding cancerous cells on microscopic examination. Lymphoma cannot be prevented, but the likelihood of a cat developing lymphoma can be decreased by preventing feline leukemia virus infection.

  • Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph nodes and lymphatic system. This cancer may be localized to one particular region, or may spread throughout the entire body. Lymphoma is a relatively common cancer, accounting for 15-20% of new cancer diagnoses in dogs. The prognosis for lymphoma varies, depending on various characteristics that can only be determined by specialized testing.

  • Radiation therapy is the medical use of high dose radiation to destroy cancer cells by damaging the cells’ DNA to interfere with cell replication and kill them. It may be used on its own or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or chemotherapy, or to reduce the size of very large tumors prior to surgery. There are several radiation protocols used in veterinary medicine. Your veterinary oncologist will choose the therapy most appropriate for your pet’s individual situation.

  • Equine sarcoids are the most common tumors seen and account for approximately nine out of every ten skin tumors seen in horses. They are non-malignant (i.e., they do not spread throughout the body) but do grow larger and often spread and multiply locally.

aaep

Location

aaep